Kidney Stones Medicine and Surgical Management

Editor: Fredric L Coe, Elaine M Worcester, Andrew P Evan, James E Lingeman

Salient Features

  • For the most common type of stone former, the Idiopathic calcium oxalate stone former (ICSF), stones are found attached to the renal papilla at sites of interstitial plaque
  • Interstitial plaque or Randall's plaque is first seen in the basement membranes of thin loops of Henle
  • lntraluminal plugs are rarely seen ICSF patients but are commonly seen in all other stone phenotypes we have studied to date
  • A stone can grow from the protruding end of intraluminal plugs of a duct of Bellini
  • Stone formers with intraluminal plugs have varying degrees if papillary tissue changes while those with interstitial plaque have normal appearing papilla
  • Ductal stones are characteristic of medullar sponge and cystine stone disease
  • Plaque amount on the papilla surface has a strong correlation with urine calcium excretion and a strong negative correlation with urine pH and volume
  • The “vas wash-down" theory best explains plaque formation in a stone patient with idiopathic hypercalciuria.

Table of Contents

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Chapter 1: Epidemiology of Kidney Stones
Chapter 2: Nonclassical Crystallization Processes: Potential Relevance to Stone Formation
Chapter 3: Biology and Clinical Relevance of Urine Crystallization Inhibitors
Chapter 4: Characteristics of Human Kidney Stones
Chapter 5: Crystals in Human Kidneys
Chapter 6: Calcium Oxalate and Calcium Phosphate Crystal Interactions with Renal Cells
Chapter 7: Animal Models of Urolithiasis
Chapter 8: Vitamin D, PTH and Regulation of Mineral Metabolism
Chapter 9: Gastrointestinal and Renal Mineral Transport and Regulation
Chapter 10: Renal Citrate Metabolism and Transport: Physiology and Pathophysiology
Chapter 11: Urine pH: Relationship to Integrative Physiology of Calcium, Phosphate, and Magnesium, and Prevention of Calcium Phosphate Precipitation
Chapter 12: Acid-Base Balance, Hypercalciuria, and Bone
Chapter 13: Idiopathic Hypercalciuria
Chapter 14: Bone Histopathology and Disease in Hypercalciuria
Chapter 15: Idiopathic Stone Formers
Chapter 16: Primary Hyperparathyroidism and Renal Stone Disease
Chapter 17: Bowel Disease and Urolithiasis
Chapter 18: Primary Hyperoxaluria
Chapter 19: Renal Tubular Acidosis and Urolithiasis
Chapter 20: Medullary Sponge Kidney and Human Monogenic Hypercalciurias
Chapter 21: Cystine and Uncommon Organic Stones
Chapter 22: Drug-Induced Stones
Chapter 23: Uric Acid Stones: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology and Treatmentstone
Chapter 24: Pediatric Kidney Stone Disease
Chapter 25: Chronic Kidney Disease and Stone Disease
Chapter 26: The Natural History of Kidney Stones
Chapter 27: Stone Factors Affecting Treatment Choices (Anatomy, Composition, etc.)
Chapter 28: Preoperative Preparations for Stone Surgery
Chapter 29: Radiological Imaging of Nephrolithiasis: Emerging Technologies and Radiation Safety
Chapter 30: Contemporary Outcomes for Shock Wave Lithotripsy, Ureteroscopy, and Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy
Chapter 31: Shock Wave Lithotripsy in Management of Stones
Chapter 32: Ureteroscopy in the Management of Stones
Chapter 33: Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in Management of Stones: Present Role, Approaches, Outcomes and Complications
Chapter 34: Special Considerations in Ureteroscopy
Chapter 35: Role of Laparoscopic, Robotic Assisted and Open Surgery in Management of Urolithiasis
Chapter 36: Surgical Management of Stones in Children