Textbook of Endocrine Surgery, Third Edition

Dr. Orlo H Clark MD, Dr. Quan-Yang Duh MD, Dr. Electron Kebebew MD,
Dr. Jessica E Gosnell MD and Dr. Wen T Shen MA MD

The third edition of Textbook of Endocrine Surgery aims to provide a comprehensive, up-to-date survey of the burgeoning and continually changing field of endocrine surgery. Over 150 authorities in the fields of thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands, and endocrine pancreas disciplines lend their expertise to this thoroughly updated volume. This book details:

  • The explosion of new techniques and technologies, including widespread use of intraoperative parathyroid hormone measurement to facilitate focused parathyroidectomy
  • The introduction of novel minimally invasive and robotic approaches to cervical and retroperitoneal tumors
  • The development of molecular testing to more accurately characterize indeterminate thyroid nodules


All the existing chapters of the previous edition have been reviewed and updated, and many new chapters have been added to reflect advancements in the field. With the inclusion of color images and new tables, Textbook of Endocrine Surgery is the complete go-to guide for all questions and theories regarding endocrine surgery.

Orlo H Clark MD is a Professor Emeritus of Surgery, Department of Surgery, Division of General Surgery at the University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA. He specializes in endocrine surgery, thyroid cancer, and other endocrine malignancies, specifically the treatment of disorders of the thyroid and parathyroid, as well as the adrenal and endocrine pancreas. 

Quan-Yang Duh MD is a Professor, Department of Surgery at the University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA and specializes in surgery to treat tumors of the thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal glands, as well as other endocrine and gastrointestinal malignancies. He has a special interest in laparoscopic surgery and minimally invasive endocrine surgery.
Electron Kebebew MD is Chief and Tenured Senior Investigator in the Endocrine Oncology Branch at the National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. He is a surgeon and scientist. His clinical practice is dedicated to the surgical management of complex thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal and neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract. His research program is focused on identifying genetic/genomic changes associated with endocrine cancer initiation and progression, with the ultimate goal of identifying therapeutic targets and novel anticancer agents for endocrine cancers, and novel diagnostic and prognostic markers for endocrine tumors.

Jessica E Gosnell MD is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Surgery, Division of General Surgery at the University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA and a surgeon who specializes in treating endocrine glands, particularly the thyroid and parathyroid. She is involved in several phase II clinical trials that evaluate novel treatments for thyroid cancer.

Wen T Shen MA MD is an Associate Professor of Clinical Surgery and Surgeon, Department of Surgery, Division of General Surgery at the University of California, San Francisco Medical Center at Mount Zion, San Francisco, California, USA and the Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center specializing in surgery of the thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands.

Table of Contents

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Chapter 1: Thyroid Physiology
Chapter 2: Surgical Anatomy and Embryology of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands and Recurrent and External Laryngeal Nerves
Chapter 3: Endemic Iodine Deficiency and Goiters: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology and Management
Chapter 4: Thyroglossal Duct Cysts and Sublingual Thyroid
Chapter 5: Sporadic Nontoxic Goiter
Chapter 6: Thyroiditis
Chapter 7: Hypothyroidism: Pearls for the Endocrine Surgeon
Chapter 8: Graves' and Plummer's Diseases: Medical and Surgical Management
Chapter 9: Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone and TSH Suppressive Therapy in Patients after Thyroid Operations for Nodular Goiter or Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
Chapter 10: Approach to Thyroid Nodules
Chapter 11: Pediatric Thyroid Carcinoma
Chapter 12: Rationale for Hemithyroidectomy
Chapter 13: Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: Rationale for Total Thyroidectomy
Chapter 14: Nonsurgical Treatment of PTC
Chapter 15: Follicular Neoplasms of the Thyroid
Chapter 16: Hürthle Cell Adenoma and Carcinoma
Chapter 17: Medullary Thyroid Cancer
Chapter 18: Surgical Ultrasonography of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands
Chapter 19: Thyroid Cytology: Benefits and Problems
Chapter 20: Localization Tests in Patients with Thyroid Cancer
Chapter 21: Papillary and Follicular Carcinoma: Surgical and Radioiodine Treatment of Distant Metastases
Chapter 22: Risk Stratification Systems for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
Chapter 23: Anaplastic Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland
Chapter 24: Unusual Thyroid Cancers, Lymphoma, and Metastases to the Thyroid
Chapter 25: Recurrent Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
Chapter 26: Nerve Monitoring During Thyroidectomy
Chapter 27: Evaluation of Voice and Larynx at Thyroid and Parathyroid Operations
Chapter 28: Thyroidectomy—Standard
Chapter 29: Thyroidectomy—Minimally Invasive Video-Assisted Thyroidectomy (MIVAT)
Chapter 30: Thyroid Surgery—Robotic
Chapter 31: Nontraditional Approaches and Remote Access to Thyroidectomy
Chapter 32: Alcohol and Radiofrequency Ablation of Thyroid Cancer Recurrence and Metastasis
Chapter 33: New Technology in Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery
Chapter 34: Management of Regional Lymph Nodes in Papillary, Follicular and Medullary Thyroid Cancer
Chapter 35: Prophylactic Central Compartment Lymph Node Dissection for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
Chapter 36: Prophylactic Versus Therapeutic Central Lymph Node Dissection for Papillary Thyroid Cancer
Chapter 37: Occurrence and Prevention of Complications in Thyroid Surgery
Chapter 38: Thyroid Emergencies: Thyroid Storm and Myxedema Coma
Chapter 39: Pathology of Tumors of the Thyroid Gland
Chapter 40: Factors That Predispose to Thyroid Neoplasia
Chapter 41: Familial (Hereditary) Nonmedullary Thyroid Cancer
Chapter 42: Oncogenesis in Thyroid Nodules
Chapter 43: Molecular Classification of Thyroid Tumors
Chapter 44: Oncogenesis and New Targeted Treatment for Thyroid Cancer
Chapter 45: Mechanisms and Regulation of Invasion in Thyroid Cancer
Chapter 46: Radioactive Iodine Therapy: Mechanisms and Indications
Chapter 47: Recombinant Human TSH and Management of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
Chapter 48: Surgical Management of Recurrent and Retrosternal Goiters
Chapter 49: Surgical Management of Advanced Thyroid Cancer Invading the Aerodigestive Tract
Chapter 50: Parathyroid Embryology, Anatomy, and Pathology
Chapter 51: Diagnosis of Primary Hyperparathyroidism and Indications for Parathyroidectomy
Chapter 52: Natural History of Untreated Primary Hyperparathyroidism
Chapter 53: Metabolic Complications of Primary Hyperparathyroidism
Chapter 54: Natural History of Treated Primary Hyperparathyroidism
Chapter 55: Asymptomatic Primary Hyperparathyroidism
Chapter 56: Normocalcemic Hyperparathyroidism
Chapter 57: Medical Management of Primary Hyperparathyroidism
Chapter 58: Localization Studies in Primary Hyperparathyroidism
Chapter 59: Localization Studies in Persistent or Recurrent Hyperparathyroidism
Chapter 60: Technique of Parathyroidectomy
Chapter 61: Surgical Approach to Primary Hyperparathyroidism (Bilateral Exploration)
Chapter 62: Surgical Approach to Primary Hyperparathyroidism (Unilateral Approach)
Chapter 63: Minimally Invasive Video-Assisted Parathyroidectomy
Chapter 64: Minimally Invasive Parathyroid Exploration
Chapter 65: Endoscopic Parathyroidectomy
Chapter 66: Intraoperative Parathormone Assay as a Surgical Adjunct in Patients with Sporadic Primary Hyperparathyroidism
Chapter 67: Parathyroid Hyperplasia: Parathyroidectomy
Chapter 68: Familial Hyperparathyroidism in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes
Chapter 69: Familial Hyperparathyroidism
Chapter 70: Secondary Hyperparathyroidism: Pathogenesis, Metabolic Complications, and Surgical Approach
Chapter 71: Surgical Treatment of Persistent Hyperparathyroidism after Renal Transplantation
Chapter 72: Vitamin D and Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 in Parathyroid Disease
Chapter 73: Parathyroid Reoperations
Chapter 74: Hypoparathyroidism and Pseudohypoparathyroidism
Chapter 75: Cryopreservation of Parathyroid Tissue
Chapter 76: Hypercalcemia of Malignancy and Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein
Chapter 77: Hypercalcemic Crisis
Chapter 78: Parathyroid Carcinoma
Chapter 79: Molecular Tests for Parathyroid Carcinomas
Chapter 80: Surgical Embryology and Anatomy of the Adrenal Glands
Chapter 81: Adrenal Physiology
Chapter 82: Modalities for Imaging the Adrenal Gland
Chapter 83: Adrenal Venous Sampling
Chapter 84: Adrenal Incidentaloma
Chapter 85: Hyperaldosteronism
Chapter 86: Adrenocortical Carcinoma: Nonfunctioning and Functioning
Chapter 87: Cushing's Syndrome
Chapter 88: Pheochromocytoma
Chapter 89: Adrenal Insufficiency
Chapter 90: Open Operative Approaches to the Adrenal Gland
Chapter 91: Robot-Assisted Adrenalectomy
Chapter 92: Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy - Transperitoneal Approach
Chapter 93: Posterior Retroperitoneoscopic Adrenalectomy (PRA)
Chapter 94: Anatomy and Embryology of the Pancreas
Chapter 95: Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1
Chapter 96: Transplantation of Endocrine Tissues
Chapter 97: Pancreatic Endocrine Physiology
Chapter 98: Insulinomas
Chapter 99: Localization of Endocrine Pancreatic Tumors
Chapter 100: Pancreatic Surgery for Endocrine Tumors
Chapter 101: Gastrinoma
Chapter 102: Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2A
Chapter 103: Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2B
Chapter 104: Somatostatinoma and Rare Pancreatic Endocrine Tumors
Chapter 105: Non-Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Endocrine Syndromes
Chapter 106: Endocrine Emergencies: Hypoglycemic and Hyperglycemic Crises
Chapter 107: Ethical Issues in Endocrine Surgery
Chapter 108: Surgical Treatment of Endocrine Disease During Pregnancy
Chapter 109: Targeted Chemotherapy for Metastatic Endocrine Cancers